Authors are reminded that long lists of citations in the text are not always helpful, especially if referring to whole books or articles. Be selective about what you include in your citations and References. Where possible, be specific by referring to page numbers.

Development and Change uses the author/date system of referencing. All works cited in the text (including sources for tables and figures) should be listed alphabetically under REFERENCES, beginning on a separate sheet of paper.

In the text

  • Works cited in the text should read thus: (Brown, 1992: 63–4); Lovell (1989, 1993).
  • For groups of citations, order alphabetically and not chronologically, using a semi-colon to separate names: (Brown, 1992; Gadgil and Guha, 1994; Lovell, 1989).
  • Use ‘et al.’ when citing a work by more than two authors, but list all the authors in the References (unless there are six authors or more).
  • To distinguish different works by the same author in the same year, use the letters a, b, c, etc., e.g. Besson (1993a, 1993b).

In the References

  • For multi-author works, invert the name of the first author only (Gadgil, M. and R. Guha). Use (ed.) for one editor, but (eds) for multiple editors.
  • When listing two or more works by one author, repeat the author’s name for each entry.
  • Indicate (opening and closing) page numbers for articles in journals and for chapters in books. Use an en rule rather than a hyphen (e.g. pp. 97–110).
  • Note that italics are used only for titles of books and names of journals. Single quotation marks ‘ ’ are used for titles of journal articles, book chapters, dissertations, reports, working papers, unpublished material, etc.
  • For titles in a language other than English, provide an English translation in parentheses.
  • For sources which have insufficient details to be included in the Reference list, use footnotes (e.g. interviews, some media sources, some internet sources).

See the following examples for style and punctuation:

Journal articles:

  • Helleiner, Eric (2006) ‘Reinterpreting Bretton Woods: International Development and the Neglected Origins of Embedded Liberalism’, Development and Change 37(5): 943–67.


  • Mosse, D. (2005) Cultivating Development: An Ethnography of Aid Policy and Practice. London: Pluto Press.
  • Watson, S. and K. Gibson (eds) (1995) Postmodern Cities and Spaces. Oxford and Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
  • Contributions to books:
  • Elson, D. (1996) ‘Appraising Recent Developments in the World Market for Nimble Fingers’, in A. Chhachhi and R. Pittin (eds) Confronting State, Capital and Patriarchy, pp. 35–55. Basingstoke and London: Macmillan Press; New York: St Martin's Press.

Conference Papers:

  • Kane P. (1983) ‘The Single Child Family in China: Urban Policies and their Effects on the One-Child Family’. Paper presented at the International Workshop, Contemporary China Centre, Oxford (17–18 March).
  • Huber, E. (2000) ‘Social Policy and Development: Notes on Social Security and Pensions Systems’. Paper prepared for the UNRISD Conference on Social Policy in a Development Context, Tammsvik (23–24 September).


  • Srinivasan, Sharada (2006) ‘Development, Discrimination and Survival. Daughter Elimination in Tamil Nadu, India’. PhD dissertation, Institute of Social Studies, The Hague.

Discussion/Working Papers:

  • Mayoux, Linda (1999) ‘Microfinance and the Empowerment of Women: A Review of the Key Issues’. ILO Social Finance Unit Working Papers no 22. Geneva: International Labour Organization.
  • Cornwall, A (2002) ‘Making Spaces, Changing Places: Situating Participation in Development’. IDS Working Paper 170. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.

Online Resources:

NB: always indicate the date that the source was accessed, as online resources are frequently updated or removed.

Unpublished Papers:

  • Waithanji, E. (1999) ‘The Role of Community in Improving Animal Health Service Delivery in Rumbek County: Community Leaders’. Unpublished report of Oxfam workshop, Rumbek town, Southern Sudan (26–28 April).
  • White, B. (2001) ‘Development Studies Journals and the Digital Future’. The Hague: Institute of Social Studies (mimeo).

Non-English Language Publications:

  • SEPA (State Environmental Protection Agency) (1994) Zhongguo Huanjing Baohu Xingzheng Ershi-nian (Twenty Years of Environmental Protection Administration in China). Beijing: China Environmental Sciences Press.