The appearance of references in academic writing is standardized according to an output style. Many academic institutes and disciplines favour one style that they consider more suitable to the topic at hand above other styles. Journals and publishers have often defined their own bibliographic style that then has the name of the journal.
Bibliographical software helps authors to maintain a style in a manuscript by applying a 'style sheet'. A limited number of basic styles may be provided, but products like RefWorks provide a complete library of output styles.
Referencing at the Institute of Social Studies: Harvard style
The Institute favours the Harvard style of referencing in academic writing, where such style is not prescribed a publishers or journals, in particular in all PhD, MA and Diploma programmes.
The Harvard style follows the 'author-date' convention. In-text citations indicate the name of the author(s) and the year of publication in round brackets e.g. (Saith 2008). At the end of the publication a list of references with full bibliographic details is provided.
Important 2017 update
When using RefWorks, or other bibliographical managers, the option to add a house style may not yet be available (e.g. MS Word 2016 in the cloud).
Cite Them Right Harvard or Sage Harvard Style may provide acceptable alternatives and are available in RefWorks.
ISS Referencing Guide
For a more detailed description we refer to the Harvard Referencing Guide 2017-18: Harvard-ISS style [v. 2 Aug 2017] (see download below).
This guide was written for RefWorks users with examples and instructions on how to enter information. The examples for each type of reference are also helpful when no or other software is used.
Bibliographical Software at ISS
RefWorks and Write-N-Cite
- The Institute favours the use of bibliographical software in academic writing. The University Library at ISS provides support for the use of RefWorks/Write-N-Cite and organizes regular training sessions for staff and students.
- The Erasmus University Library has an extensive online course: e-course RefWorks
The current version of RefWorks is 2.0 (legacy). The current version of Write-N-Cite is 4. The old and new Write-N-Cite versions (lll and 4) are both offered during the development phase of version 4. Please note: there is a marked difference between version lll and 4 and they do not work together! You are therefore advised to use either lll or 4.
User guides (see downloads below)
- Instructions to get started - RefWorks 2.0, Legacy : [v. 2, Aug 2017] (for ISS users)
- Installing WNC4 for Windows and Mac (for ISS users)
- Write-N-Cite4 Guide [Jan 2017 v.01] (for ISS users)
- Exporting references: step-by step guide on how to export references from databases at EUR/ISS [Sept 2017] (for ISS users)
Use of RefWorks in combination with word processors other than Microsoft Word
Write‐N‐Cite formats citations and generates bibliographies only in Microsoft Word produced papers. It is not a priori suitable for other word processors. A general purpose solution has therefore been created by RefWorks COS to facilitate other word processors as for instance Open Office.org Writer.
- One Line/Cite View [2014 v.1] (for ISS users) (see downloads below)
Apart from RefWorks, users could also consider to use open source software: Zotero.
Zotero can be downloaded at http://www.zotero.org/ and runs as a Firefox extension. The Zotero programme is capable of capturing titles from many online bibliographical databases and resources and of making a snapshot of a webpage. Recorded references can be stored locally or online on the Zotero server, depending on the version that is installed.
For working with references that are 'synchronized' at the Zotero server, the user first registers with Zotero to get an account. Zotero has facilities for citing in your wordprocessor [be it Ms Word or open source] and generating a list of references or bibliographies. Zotero provides a number of alternatives in Harvard output style. Recommended, is the Harvard Style that has been 'adapted for Leeds Met'.
Zotero is not (yet) fully supported at ISS, but questions will be answered to 'best effort' (contact the Virtual Desk or phone ext. 456).