How do paramilitary groups emerge, mobilize and act? Which paramilitary groups have been established, deactivated and abolished from the Ottoman period to the present day? Which ones are still active? What sets the post-2015 period apart, a period which has led to some raising the question 'Is there a return to the 90s?'?
On the 5th anniversary of the Cizre Massacre, researcher Dr Ayhan Işık, talks about his PhD research into the emergence, transformation and functions of paramilitary groups in Turkey.
The interview discusses the role of pro-state paramilitary groups in Turkey’s Kurdish conflict from the 1990s to the present, including the origin and background of those groups. The interview also discusses how these groups were established, transformed and what their functions are. In addition, the interview analyses the complex and intertwined relations between the Turkish nationalist society, the state and paramilitary groups.
Read the interview online - 'From denial to overtness'