On 30 September 2021, Anggun Trisnanto Hari Susilo successfully defended his PhD thesis entitled 'The Indonesian National Program for Community Empowerment (PNPM)- Rural: Decentralization in the context of neoliberalism and World Bank policies'
In his thesis, Anggun Susilo analysed two cases, both reflecting the dynamics of PNPM in terms of programme implementation and its degree of capture by local interests.
The first case concerns PNPM implementation in Gadingkulon; the second case looks at PNPM in the village of Ngadirejo.
He found that in both cases, PNPM processes and outputs were largely determined by four factors:
- local context,
- power dynamics,
- the work of facilitators and, most importantly,
In Ngadirejo, elite conflict had particular influence on PNPM processes. The influence of elites was magnified there by a weak facilitator’s role.
In contrast, PNPM processes were relatively smooth in Gadingkulon, due to an absence of conflict, the presence of a skilful and experienced facilitator and good coordination by the PNPM management unit.